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It all started with minor slips you easily dismissed as "senior moments." You forgot your keys. You called someone by the wrong name. The word you were looking for was on the tip of your tongue, but you couldn't quite grasp it. You don't feel any older, but you do feel yourself changing. Researchers agree this could be a sign of something more serious. A young mind has the capacity to store vast amounts of information. This is made possible by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which maintains and strengthens the neural connections responsible for a sharp memory. But as we get older, declining levels of acetylcholine begin to weaken the neural pathways required to retrieve information.
What is Acetylcholine?
Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter used at the neuromuscular junction—in other words, it is the chemical that motor neurons of the nervous system release in order to activate muscles. ... In the brain, acetylcholine functions as a neurotransmitter and as a neuromodulator. Two neurotransmitters seem to play a role in Alzheimer's Disease: acetylcholine and glutamate. Acetylcholine (ACh) activates muscles and helps with arousal, short-term memory, and learning. ... As the brain cells of someone with Alzheimer's Disease die, they release excess amounts of glutamate. Glutamate is a powerful excitatory neurotransmitter that is released by nerve cells in the brain. It is responsible for sending signals between nerve cells, and under normal conditions it plays an important role in learning and memory. “Glutamate is a pivotal transmitter in the brain, the crucial link in circuits involved in memory, learning and perception. Too much glutamate leads to seizures and the death of brain cells. ... Too little glutamate can cause psychosis, coma and death.
Promoting healthy levels of acetylcholine forges new neural connections, which power the information sharing network of your mind. This biological process restores retentive memory, clear focus, and confident decision-making.
A study published in the British Medical Journal of January 2012 has concluded that age-related cognitive decline begins much earlier than expected: by our mid-40s. Even more distressing, this decline can progress at very unpredictable rates. Scientists have identified that acetylcholine, a key neurotransmitter, is responsible for forming new connections and strengthening neural pathways in the brain. In other words, it keeps your mind sharp. However, persistently low levels of this key neurotransmitter places you at risk. Without healthy levels of acetylcholine, the brain can physically shrink; at which point, the damage can be very difficult to repair.
And yet, we all know people of advanced age who seem immune to this cognitive decline. These so-called superagers retain high mental acuity well into their later years. Scientists have determined that superagers minds' function with high levels of acetylcholine. Therefore, their minds have stronger and more numerous neural connections. This creates the ideal environment for a steel-trap memory. Unfortunately, for most of us, levels of acetylcholine decrease as we age and rapidly so after age 45. SuperAgers and their cognitively average-for-age peers reported similarly high levels of psychological well-being across multiple dimensions, SuperAgers endorsed greater levels of positive social relationships. This psychological feature could conceivably have a biological relationship to the greater thickness of the anterior cingulate gyrus and higher density of von Economo neurons.
But it's not just our age that is to blame. Like a muscle, your brain needs constant exercise to stay in shape. Modern society deprives us of essential mental exercise.
Before the written word became accessible and affordable, oral history was the only way to spread culture to younger generations. As a result, a strong memory was an essential part of everyday life. For example, ancient Greek poets would memorize and recite entire epic poems that were thousands of lines long. Because of the demands society placed on their brains, these individuals engaged in rigorous daily mental exercise. They did not have telephones, TVs, and computers distracting their attention and distorting the ways in which their brains processed information. This kind of singular focus required optimal levels of acetylcholine. Before the written word became accessible and affordable, oral history was the only way to spread culture to younger generations. As a result, a strong memory was an essential part of everyday life. For example, ancient Greek poets would memorize and recite entire epic poems that were thousands of lines long. Because of the demand’s society placed on their brains, these individuals engaged in rigorous daily mental exercise. They did not have telephones, TVs, and computers distracting their attention and distorting the ways in which their brains processed information. This kind of singular focus required optimal levels of acetylcholine.

A network of neural connections in the brain.
Modern technology denies crucial exercise to certain areas of our brains in two important ways, causing it to atrophy over time. We are exposed to numerous sources of stimulation which constantly disrupt our production of acetylcholine. Likewise, we no longer need to remember phone numbers, addresses, dates, or even basic navigation because our phones have replaced our memories. Both of these factors train your mind to forget and place you at risk for earlier onset of cognitive decline.
Dr. R. Jackie Taylor RN Ph.D

Posted on 12 Dec 2019 by admin
A deadly virus called Nipah carried by bats has already caused human outbreaks across South and South East Asia and has “serious epidemic potential”, global health and infectious disease.
Nipah, a virus carried primarily by certain types of fruit bats and pigs, which can also be transmitted directly from person to person as well as through contaminated food.
Within two years of being first discovered, Nipah had spread to Bangladesh, where it has caused several outbreaks since 2001. A 2018 Nipah outbreak in Kerala killed 17 people.
“Outbreaks of Nipah virus have so far been confined to South and Southeast Asia, but the virus has serious epidemic potential, because Pteropus fruit bats that carry the virus are found throughout the tropics and sub-tropics, which are home to more than two billion people.
“There are currently no specific drugs or vaccines for Nipah virus infection, even though the World Health Organization has identified (it) as a priority disease,”

Posted on 12 Dec 2019 by admin
Outdoor air pollution is a major environmental health problems and affects everyone in develop and developing countries. It causes a premature death of millions of people every year,mostly to the Western Pacific and Southeast Asian regions of the world (WHO,2016). The six major air contamination and their sources are the following: (California Protection Agency,2017;((EPA) Environmental Protection Agency 2017a;2017b;WHO 2016}

# Particulate matter {PM}this is a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles of organic and inorganic substances suspended in the air with major components consisting of sulfate,nitrates,ammonia,sodium chloride,carbon,mineral dust,and water.
Where are the sources of these complex mixture? PM include cars,and trucks with diesels particularly, fireplaces,wood stoves,windblown dust from roads, agriculture,and constructions.

# Ozone{O3} at the ground level is a major element of photochemecal smog formed when sunlight reacts with pollutants, such as nitrogen oxide{NOx} from vehicles and industry emissions, and volatile organic compounds {VOCs}from vehicles, solvents,and industry emission. Ozone pollutants levels are highest during sunny days.

# Nitrogen dioxide {NO2} is an air pollutants whose major source is a nitrate aerosols.

# Sulfur dioxide is colorless gas with sharp odor produced from burning of fossils fuels especially coal and oil and smelting of mineral ores that contain sulfur.

#Carbon monoxide {CO} is colorless, odorless, toxic gas that results from the use of unvented kerosene and gas heaters;such as leaking chimneys and furnaces;gas water heaters,wood stoves and automobile exhaust from attached garages,generators and other powered equipment and tobacco smoke.

# Lead {Pb}has long been recognized as a harmful pollutant. Where is the exposure of lead? from air we breath, drinking water,food,contaminated soil,deteriorating paint and dust.

Concerning health issues:

The air quality we breath is not only to the level of contamination in the air we breath every day, but also to the temperature humidity and odors present in the air. Temperature is the measurement of hot or cold the air around us. Humidity is the moisture content of the air. External air temperature can affect human health. The intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change{IPCC} has recommended short-term external temperature fluctuations as one of the main markers for analyzing the effect of climate on mortality and morbidity, For instance, recent studies have demonstrated that both increases and decreases in air temperature are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality.
The effects of heat are IMMEDIATE while the effects of cold are predominant over longer time periods.{Confalonieri,et al,2007;Liu et al.;2011}
Most cities show a rise in short term-heat-related respiratory mortality, especially in the elderly {Liu et al.,2011;Morabito et al.,2012}.

Dr. R. Taylor
Posted on 23 Sep 2019 by admin
Health care in 21st century face multiple challenges in the delivery of care. For example; unpredictable reimbursements,shortages of virtually every type of provider,expanding disclosure requirements, unprecedented quality and safety requirements, aging facilities, and skyrocketing expenses are just some of the forces influencing the provision of care.
These forces present complex challenges to health care leaders but present opportunities as well.
Evidence design of architecture, as well as exterior and interior design can profoundly impact patient outcome, employee health, and organizational productivity (Sadler,Dubose,Malone,& Zimring, 2008).
Multiple studies on the effects of health care design suggest that all hospital,clinics,and other health care facilities;clients and visitors have the following needs:
1. Physical Comfort - which includes appropriate room temperature, pleasant lightning, comfortable furniture and freedom from unpleasant odors and harsh annoying noise.
2. Social contact - a privacy that limit what other see and hear of you and controlling what you see and hear of others.
3. Symbolic meaning - the array of non verbal messages embodied in design. For instance: cramp uncomfortable waiting room suggest that clients that coming are not respected and value.
4. Wayfinding - The maze of equipment and hallways and inadvertently wandering into restricted hallways are embarrassing or even frightening.
Without these details health care facilities are places where patients are overexposed to strangers. There are two majors questions : What does the facilities say about you and your concern for patients, your workers and the environment and how are these values reflected in every aspect of care delivery.
Posted on 26 Aug 2019 by admin
The human body consist of chemical compounds obtained from food, sunlight, the air you breathe and the water you drink. The body functions through millions of chemical reactions that occur constantly.

Putting a foreign substance, such as psychotropic drugs into your body disrupts the body’s normal chemistry. This may create a temporary false feeling of being “high” or called in medical term euphoria. It is a short-live burst of increased energy or abnormal sense of heightened alertness. However, it is not normal to feel like this and the feeling does not last.

These drugs interfere with the normal functions of the body. These functions speed up, slow down, dam up or are overwhelmed. This is why psychiatric drugs produce side effects. This is, in fact why they produce any effect at all. They do not heal anything.

For example like a car running on rocket fuel, you may be able to get it to go a thousand miles an hour to the end of the block, but the tires, the engine and the internal parts will then fly apart.

So the primary questions that I want to know as a scientist is How the psychiatric pharmaceutical industry flooded the market with dangerous partially tested drugs that are designed to alter human behavior.

Dr. Taylor
Posted on 16 Aug 2019 by admin
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