image image image image
Learning Tools
External Pollution aforethought
Outdoor air pollution is a major environmental health problems and affects everyone in develop and developing countries. It causes a premature death of millions of people every year,mostly to the Western Pacific and Southeast Asian regions of the world (WHO,2016). The six major air contamination and their sources are the following: (California Protection Agency,2017;((EPA) Environmental Protection Agency 2017a;2017b;WHO 2016}

# Particulate matter {PM}this is a complex mixture of solid and liquid particles of organic and inorganic substances suspended in the air with major components consisting of sulfate,nitrates,ammonia,sodium chloride,carbon,mineral dust,and water.
Where are the sources of these complex mixture? PM include cars,and trucks with diesels particularly, fireplaces,wood stoves,windblown dust from roads, agriculture,and constructions.

# Ozone{O3} at the ground level is a major element of photochemecal smog formed when sunlight reacts with pollutants, such as nitrogen oxide{NOx} from vehicles and industry emissions, and volatile organic compounds {VOCs}from vehicles, solvents,and industry emission. Ozone pollutants levels are highest during sunny days.

# Nitrogen dioxide {NO2} is an air pollutants whose major source is a nitrate aerosols.

# Sulfur dioxide is colorless gas with sharp odor produced from burning of fossils fuels especially coal and oil and smelting of mineral ores that contain sulfur.

#Carbon monoxide {CO} is colorless, odorless, toxic gas that results from the use of unvented kerosene and gas heaters;such as leaking chimneys and furnaces;gas water heaters,wood stoves and automobile exhaust from attached garages,generators and other powered equipment and tobacco smoke.

# Lead {Pb}has long been recognized as a harmful pollutant. Where is the exposure of lead? from air we breath, drinking water,food,contaminated soil,deteriorating paint and dust.

Concerning health issues:

The air quality we breath is not only to the level of contamination in the air we breath every day, but also to the temperature humidity and odors present in the air. Temperature is the measurement of hot or cold the air around us. Humidity is the moisture content of the air. External air temperature can affect human health. The intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change{IPCC} has recommended short-term external temperature fluctuations as one of the main markers for analyzing the effect of climate on mortality and morbidity, For instance, recent studies have demonstrated that both increases and decreases in air temperature are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality.
The effects of heat are IMMEDIATE while the effects of cold are predominant over longer time periods.{Confalonieri,et al,2007;Liu et al.;2011}
Most cities show a rise in short term-heat-related respiratory mortality, especially in the elderly {Liu et al.,2011;Morabito et al.,2012}.

Dr. R. Taylor
Posted on 23 Sep 2019 by admin
Name: Remember me
E-mail: (optional)
Smile:smile wink wassat tongue laughing sad angry crying 
CAPTCHA, click to refresh
Powered by CuteNews

2309 Bel Air Rd #304
Fallston, Maryland 21047
View Map & Location

Mailing Address:
P.O Box 415
Fallston, Maryland 21047-0415

Phone: 443-417-3517
Toll Free No: 1-877-275-5407
Fax: 410-877-3092

Office Address:
15500 Indianola Dr.
Rockville, MD 20855
View Map & Location

Mailing Address:
12975 Highland Rd., Ste. #224
Highland, MD 20777-9998

join us button we support button
Welcome! Visitor No: